Environmental international treaties
Environmental international treaties, it leaves of the international Right related with environmental questions. This question has acquired a growing importance in the given last years the growing one taking of conscience, on the part of the opinion public, that many environmental problems they can pass over the frontiers of the countries, or they have such a global reach that it is not possible to only make them front by means of laws of national reach. The treaties and conventions among different countries are today the main source of international environmental laws.
From beginnings of the XX century they come signing you treaties on what today would call environmental questions. These increased in number and reach starting from the II World War. Among the most important examples they are the International Convention for the Prevention of the Contamination for Petroleum of the Seas (1954), the Convention of Paris about the responsibility of third parts in the field of the nuclear energy (1960) and the Convención Ramsar has more than enough humedales of international importance (1971).
The Conference of Estocolmo on the environment, summoned by the United Nations and taken place in 1972, the political conscience increased on the global nature of many threats to the environment. The international activity was intensified, what took to the creation of the Program of the United Nations for the environment. At the same time, the European Economic Community (today European Union) it started a program of environmental initiatives.
The main treaties on the environment signed from the Conference of Estocolmo include the Convention on the International Trade in threatened Species of Fauna and Flora (1973), the Convention for the Prevention of the Contamination of the Sea from stations located in earth (1974), the Convention about the Transborder Contamination at Long Distance (1979), the Convention for the Protection of the Level of Ozone (1985) and the Convention for the Control of the Transborder Displacements of Dangerous Residuals and their elimination (1989).
In 1992 the United Nations summoned a global Conference on the environment and the Development (well-known as Summit on the Earth) that took place in River of Janeiro. In her two important international conventions were approved, the Convención Marco about the Climatic Change and the Convention has more than enough Biological Diversity.
In spite of the many international treaties at the moment in vigor on the environment, their effective application continues being an important challenge for the world community. The International Tribunal of Justice of United Nations can only play a limited part as referee of the disputes among the different countries. The forecasts of the international treaties usually include their signatories' regular meetings and mechanisms to force to the countries to contribute detailed reports on the execution of their obligations. Every time is more grateful the importance of the participation of the non government organizations in the process.
Besides the formal obligations specified in the own environmental treaties, an use every time is making bigger than the ' law blanda', in form of directive, declarations, codes deontológicos, and other declarations of principles. On the contrary of what happens with the obligations imposed by the treaties, these are not legally vinculantes for the countries and they are, therefore, more flexible and easier of agreeing. They can have even this way a significant influence in the improvement of the international standards of behavior. Two important examples, agreed in the Summit on the Earth of 1992, are the Declaration of River on the environment and the Development, and the Calendar 21, an extensive document in which a program of environmental measures is traced to take until the first years of the XXI century.