National parks and natural reservations
National parks and natural reservations, territories and masses of water of public ownership and exceptional value that the governments preserve to protect ecosystems, animal species and threatened vegetables, places of great interest paisajístico, geologic formations or places of special historical or archaeological interest.
The national parks are believed, in the first place, for public enjoyment of some exceptional environments where the visitors can admire the wild life and to enjoy the nature. In general, in these protected territories cynegetic activities can not be developed, cattlemen, pastoral, lumbermen or mining, or in general all those that suppose the exploitation of the natural resources. On the other hand, some parks commemorate historical events.
The national reservations, sometimes calls natural reservations or of the biosphere, they are often in the vicinity of the national parks. These territories are devoted fundamentally to the protection of the wild species and the scientific investigation more than to the public enjoyment, and they become alive laboratories where the scientists observe to the animals and the plants in their natural hábitat. The hunt, the fishing and the mining are allowed in many reservations of United States, whenever they don't damage the environment. In many other countries, these activities are prohibited in the reservations.
The first national park of the history, the National Park Yellowstone, it was founded in 1872 to preserve 8.983 km2 of a forest with unique geothermal conditions located in the west of United States. From then on, numerous national parks have been created and you reserve in the entire world. Many of them protect remote areas and intact natural environments, while others represent nature islands densely amid areas populated.
The national parks protect a wide fauna range and marine and terrestrial flora that
goes from the arctic tundra to the tropical savannas. In the end noroccidental of North America, the Park national Doors of the Ártico extends along 30.448 km2 of tundra belonging to the state of Alaska and located in its entirety to the north of the arctic polar circle. Inside the park they are the mountain range of Brooks, glaciers, arctic gulches, torrents and countless lakes. The southern slope of the park is spotted of taiga (a formation boscosa of bushes of perennial leaf), while in the north
is only the thin vegetation of the arctic tundra. For the park enormous caribúes flocks stroll.
In África, the national Park Serengeti (Tanzania), of 14.763 km2, and the adjacent national Reservation Masai Mara (Kenya), of 1.510 km2, they were created to protect to the flocks of elephants, gazelles, impalas and existent zebras in the same ones. The prairies of this ecosystem harbor these and other numerous species of mammals, birds and reptiles. The national Reservation Masai Mara provides, also, grasses for the flocks of the town masai in the times of extreme drought.
The Park national Earth of the Fire that is located in the south of Argentina, harbors beaches and forests of the southern end of South America. Their 622 km2 are taken a bath by the sweet waters of the lake Fagnano to the north and the salted of the channel from Beagle to the south; in them seals, tusks, coastal and migratory avifauna are covered. The mountains of the interior of the park harbor reindeers, beavers and rabbits that were introduced by the first European colonists.
THE FIRST NATURAL PARKS
Although it is considered to Yellowstone like the first national park, it was not the first territory preserved by a federal law in United States. President Abraham Lincoln signed in 1864 a concession for which gave 3.079 km2 of the valley from the Yosemite to the state of California. The document specified that that territory, nowadays national Park Yosemite, it should be preserved for public
enjoys. The subsequent expeditions to the central sector of the Rocky mountains impelled the naturalists to request a similar protection for the area of Yellowstone, in the northwest of Wyoming, and in the adjacent regions of Montana and Idaho.
In the decade of 1890 other three national parks were declared in United States: the national Park Yosemite (1890), inside the mountainous environment of mountain Nevada; the national Park of the Secuoyas (1890), also in California that protects 1.628 km2 of gigantic secuoyas in the western slope of mountain Nevada; and the national Park of the Monte Rainier (1899) that embraces 953 km2 in those that are 26 big glaciers and very old forests of firs, inside the environment of the mountain range of the Cascades, in the state of Washington. In 1916 the Congress of United States creó the Service of National Parks, a department of the Department of the Interior to assist to the growing number of national parks.
At the end of the XIX century the Canadian government took a lot of time worrying about the conservacionismo, creating big natural reservations after the establishment of the Domain of Canada for the Britons in 1867. The creation of the park of Yellowstone encouraged to the young nation to create its own system of parks. In 1885 the national Park of the Rocky Montañas settled down (at the present time, national Park Banff) with 6.640 km2 of hábitat natural virgin in the west of Alberta's county, where three workers of the Canadian Railroad of the Pacific had discovered natural thermal sources.
In 1911 Canada it approved a legislation that allowed the establishment of national parks for benefit and the citizens' enjoyment. The protection of the Canadian parks was accentuated in 1930 with the Law of National Parks that prohibited the exploitation of the natural resources of the same ones. A revision of this law of 1988 made prevail the preservation of the natural means about the tourist interests.
The defense of the nature in Mexico dates of the XVI century, when Moctezuma II, sovereign of the Aztec Empire, creó botanical and zoological reservations. The first park national Mexican of the modern times you creó for presidential ordinance in 1917. During the president's command Cardinal red Lázaro (1934-1940) 40 national parks and 7 reservations were created. The Park national Fence that protects the ruins of an old Mayan city and the dense tropical pluvisilvas that surround them were among them.
The first parks national Argentineans date of 1903, year in that you proceeded to the donation of lands deprived in the Andean Highland to the federal government. This area that now is integrated inside the 7.500 km2 of the Park national Nahuel Huapí (1934), it was donated in the understanding that it would be conserved in their natural state. In 1934 you creó the Argentinean Service of National Parks that in 1980 it defined three types of protected areas: national parks, national monuments and national reservations.
On the contrary of what happened in North America and South America, where the creation of national parks implied the preservation of big territories of wild nature in general, in Europe they were few havens of intact earth at the end of the XIX century. Nevertheless, the emergency of the conservacionismo in many countries reflected the concern for the wild life. In the United Kingdom, so much the National Trust (1894) as the Council for the Preservation of the Rural England (1926), they insisted in the recovery of natural spaces snatched by the industrial expansion and their repopulation. The conservacionismo received an impulse in Sweden with the creation of two national parks in 1909: the national Park Abisko, with 78 km2, and the national Park Peljekajse, with 153km2. To Sweden Switzerland continued him in 1914 with the creation of the Swiss national Park that covers an area of 168 km2. In 1918 Spain it preserved a collection of valleys, prairies, limestone cliffs and alpine land of 155 km2 in the national Park of Ordesa, months after the creation of the national Park of Covadonga (current Park national Picks of Europe).
Many European countries used the national parks to recover areas desolated by the industrialization and to repopulate animal species that were on the edge of the extinction. Some íbices of the national Park of the Great Paradise, created in Italy in 1922 with an extension of 700 km2, was transferred to other places of the country to found new flocks. Switzerland reintrodujo the lynx in the Park national Swiss to control the populations of red deer. The growth of the natural parks was good equally to recover in many European countries the forests that you/they had left step to the industrial landscape at the beginning of the XX century.
The African wild fauna has been hunted mercilessly from final of the XIX century until well entered the XX one. Toward 1920 the hunt hunters had decimated whole populations and the colonists had deforestado big land extensions. The in the past enormous flock of elephants that wandered for The Oriental End, a county suroriental of the Republic of Suráfrica, was reduced to 11 copies. The antelope bontebok was reduced to about 30 copies and the zebra also faced the extinction.
Suráfrica took the first measures to invest this tendency creating several parks and reservations. Elefantes Addo's national Park, been founded in 1931, harbors now to more than 200 copies. This park, of 241 km2, also covers buffalos of The End, black rhinoceroses and 180 species of birds. The national Park Bontebok, near the tip meriodional of Suráfrica, is a sanctuary of 31 km2 it stops more than 300 antelopes bontebok and more than 470 vegetable species. The national Park Mounts Zebra it protects at 200 mountain zebras, several species of antelopes and 200 of birds. In the 62 km2 of the park there are mountains, abrupt ravines and numerous species of bushes.
The federal lands protected in Kenya date of 1940, year in that the national Reservation was founded Marsabit. Inside the 360 km2 of the forests and savannas of the park wander flocks of elephants and of great antelope kudu.
Most of the organized safaris at the moment in the parks and national reservations of África are strictly tourist. However, the hunt still plays an economic and environmental paper in the continent. The guided hunt safaris and delimited in concrete reservations, outside of the limits of the national parks, they help to control the populations of animals that are not threatened of extinction.
3THE NATIONAL PARKS FROM THE II WORLD WAR
The political stability, the economic recovery, the social progress and the new environmental sciences have influenced in the development of the parks and national reservations in all the continents after the II World War. In United States and Canada, the prosperity of the postwar period favored the extension of the periods vacacionales to the population's wider sector. More and more families possessed an own vehicle, so the national parks became attractive destinations soon.
When reconstructing the desolated Europe, their political and social leaders realized the necessity to preserve and to restore the natural areas, at the same time that the economic recovery was looked for. The calls of the naturalists in favor of the creation of new national parks that protects the flora and the fauna received the support of the public opinion and they gave positive results.
On the other hand, the movements independentistas that ran off with in África and Asia against the European colonial powers also tried to protect the natural resources of the exploitation of the foreign governments.
The controlled use and the systematic protection of the natural resources have always been the main reason to create national parks. But the Great Depression and the II World War limited the efforts conservacionistas during the decade of 1930 and 1940. With the arrival of the peace in 1945, the naturalists promoted the conservation by means of the establishment of natural parks with more intensity.
In 1930, the movement British conservacionista convinced the Parliament so that
took charge a study on the establishment of natural parks in the country. After the II World War, the final report was debated in the Parliament, after that which was approved the Law of National Parks and Rural Areas (1949), by means of which the creation of 10 national parks was promoted between 1951 and 1957. Nowadays those parks don't only preserve the vegetable and animal resources, but also ecosystems, natural places, geologic formations, recess places, archaeological treasures and towns and historical cities.
In 1971 the Organization of the United Nations for the Education, the Science and the Culture (UNESCO) and the Zoological Society of New York, two of the many organizations conservacionistas that promote the creation and amplification of national parks, convinced Ethiopia so that establishes the national Park of the Mounts
Bleats. This park of 2.471 km2 understands the biggest alpine ecosystem of África and it preserves mountains, forests, swamps and grasses where 64 species of mammals like the antelope of mountain nyala, the wolf simien and the deer menelick live.
A fundamental organization in the creation and protection of parks and national reservations from the decade of 1960 has been the World Fund for the Nature, well-known in North America like World Fund for the Wild Life (World Wildlife Fund, WWF). One of the biggest achievements in the WWF happened in 1973, when the organization helped the Indian government to organize the Proyecto Tigre, a program to protect to the tigers and its hábitat. The tigers are threatened of extinction in all Asia for the black market that traffics with their organs, very appreciated in the traditional medicines of the region, and for the deforestation and the demographic increase that have reduced their hábitat and the capacity of capturing preys. The efforts to recover the populations of tigers include the conservation of the waters, the floors and the vegetation that
benefits equally to the whole ecosystem.
Important areas of several dozens of tropical pluvisilvas located in central and western África, the Asian Southeast and South America have been protected by means of the creation of reservations or natural parks through the campaign rushed by the WWF from 1975. The WWF played a fundamental paper in the creation in 1991 of the national Park Cross River that it represents the sanctuary for the last population of gorillas of plain of Nigeria with its 3.999 km2. From 1985, the WWF has invested in the entire world more than 1.100 million dollars in 11.000 projects.
Responding to the growing environmental concerns, United States creó in 1974 their first national reservations to protect a wide range of animal resources and vegetables. In 1980 they were already added to those existent several national parks that included big wild territories in Alaska.
In 1996 an enormous national reservation settled down for the conservation of the wild life in the Siberian republic of Yakutia, also well-known as it Cuts. The fragile arctic ecosystem understood in the 699.297 km2 of the reservation provides a hábitat for the threatened Siberian cranes, the polar bears, the reindeers and the tusks.
From the end of the II World War dozens of nations have arisen in the world. The spirit of the nationalism (a desire of national independence, frequently related with an ethnic or singular identity) that fed the emergence of these nations, it also impelled the aspirations conservacionistas in many of those countries. The new nations inherited and they maintained the objective conservacionistas of the colonial governments that preceded them and finally they developed parks and national reservations in their own interest.
The nationalism has not always benefitted the existence of the national parks. The necessity to develop the economies and the defense budgets, often to coast of the natural resources, together with the conflicts among nations, they have been incompatible with the programs conservacionistas. However, in the last fifty years it has been ended up understanding like reason of national pride the to preserve and to increase the national resources inside the national frontiers.
In Ukraine imperial limits of hunt existed from 1913. But this country has not protected in an active way its natural hábitat until it approved the legislation it has more than enough timber activities in 1979 and later the Law of Protection and Use of the Nature in 1981. The efforts conservacionistas has been increased since Ukraine declared its independence of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1991.
Estonia that also abandoned the Soviet Union in 1991, creó two years later the national Park Karula, 104 km2, to protect a natural space of small farms, hills and lakes. Most of the park is covered for different forest types that you/they go from the marshy forests to the pinegroves in dry and sandy land. Wolves, elks, otters, beavers, golden eagles and black storks are among the species that have their home there. The park also preserves the characteristics small farms of the region that escaped to the agrarian sovietización.
In the África south, Botsuana consented to the independence of Great Britain in 1966 and from then on
has dedicated 17% from its territory to national parks or cynegetic reservations. Many of the parks are in the region of the delta of the Okavango, a plain feraz during the time of the rains that harbors a great quantity of wild life. Botsuana protects and, at the same time,
takes advantage of these natural resources. The tourists pay dozens of millions of dollars annually in the country in photographic and cynegetic safaris.
Historical preservation and education
Together with the nationalism it grew the interest and the native pride for the historical events. Nations from all over the world preserved places emblemáticos marked by historical antecedents. In the region of Klondike (shared by United States and Canada), the national historical Park of the Fever of the Gold (1976) it protects 10 km2 of paths in the north end of Alaska for where the searchers of gold consented to the Territory of the Yukón in the legendary stampede of 1897-1898. In Guatemala, the national Park Tikal (1957) it protects an area of 5.757 km2 around the old Mayan city of Tikal, where they lived D.C. more than 10.000 people toward the 900 and that at the present time it is the hábitat of 300 species of birds that nest in the cedars and the mahoganies.
Norway protects the archaeological remains of several stations whalers and cemeteries of the XVII century in the national Park of the Northwest of Spitsbergen (1973) that with a surface of 3.560 km2 Svalbard extends for the archipelago. Spain gives special emphasis to the education together with the strict preservation of several of its national parks. This way, inside the national Park of Covadonga (created in 1918 and at the present time denominated Park national Picks of Europe), a historical sanctuary commemorates the battle of Covadonga that took place in the year 722 among Christian and Muslim troops, besides caves with prehistoric paintings. This park of 646 km2 harbors imperial eagles, vultures, goshawks, hawks pilgrims and other predators, dozens of species of butterflies and 40 species of orchids.
CHALLENGES TO THOSE THAT FACE THE NATIONAL PARKS
In spite of the official protection that the governments guarantee them, the parks and national reservations from all over the world face threats coming from beyond their limits. These threats go from the forest exploitation, the mining activity and the shepherding to the growth of the demographic pressure in their surroundings. Also, the furtivismo, that is to say the illegal capture of wild fauna inside a national park or of a reservation, it moves a business of about 5.000 millions annually in the world.
You threaten coming from the development, the sobreexplotación and the multiple uses
In United States the humedal of the Everglades, located in the state of Florida and with an extension of 6.097 km2, it was in danger due to the economic development of the area before this was declared national park in 1947. In spite of it, it continued the construction of channels and dikes to provide supply up to the populations located waters of the park, what supposed the strangulation little by little of this marshy region. The canalizations altered the natural flow of the water of the lake Okeechobee that fed the fragile ecosystem of the park, toward the Everglades. The near farms to the park increased the problem using other natural flows to water their crops and returning them then to the park contaminated with fertilizers. In an intent to restore the natural flows of the park, president Bill Clinton authorized in the decade of 1990 the federal expropriation of 510 km2 of adjacent agricultural land.
The mining activity and the contamination of the aquifer consequence of that threaten to several reservations in the India. In 1992 the mining exploitation was allowed inside the Reservation of tigers of Sariska (1958) that has an extension of 492 km2. The pruning that destroys the forest hábitats and it contaminates the water when allowing the erosion of the floor, and some hydraulic projects for irrigable and forecast of floods was allowed in the Reservation of tigers of Melghat (1985) that extends for 1.598 km2.
The hunt and the pruning threaten, also, areas protected in the north of Argentina, while the massive tourism degrades their parks and southern reservations. The extensive cattle raising harms other areas protected in the whole country.
As the number of visitors to the national parks from all over the world increases, they also grow the conflicts among tourists, scientific and the nature. The cars, the trucks and the recess vehicles crowd the most popular destinations, dirtying the natural environment with polluting emissions, garbage and noise. The numerous groups of excursionists deteriorate the paths of the parks. Many visitors destroy autochthonous plants when being left the conventional routes, and others take I get other exogenous plants that are dangerous for the species of the place.
The stealthy ones don't respect the limits of the parks and national reservations. In África, the black rhinoceros faces the extinction because the stealthy ones sell his horns, appreciated in the traditional medicine of the region. Elephants are killed by their ivory in spite of the world prohibition as for their traffic. As much the elephants as the giraffes are hunted by their meat. Wild parrots and reptiles are captured to sell them as mascots, crocodiles and snakes for their skin, and monkeys to be sold to circuses and zoological parks.
Protection of the natural corridors of migration
The political frontiers that define the silhouette of the parks and natural reservations can not restrict the natural migrations of the wild fauna. The migration corridors, routes that follow some animals annually between their summer hábitats and winter and in breeding times, they often take them beyond the protected areas. As a result, the fauna that ventures beyond a certain sanctuary can arrive to colisionar with other animals or with human in not protected areas.
The pruning, the mining and the exploitation of oil locations and of natural gas near some national parks in the western counties of Canada, they intercept the natural corridors of migration and they destroy the natural hábitats beyond the protected areas. These activities affect to the caribúes flocks that need their old forests like pruning places, refuge and it raises.
The national parks whose creation is based in the biodiversity concept try to protect the entirety of the natural resources that you/they are inside their limits. This implies to negotiate the animal species and vegetables to assure their biodiversity. However, this protection of the biodiversity usually causes conflicts with the public access to the national parks whose agents are also interested in the access to the same of the visitors, besides in the conservation of the nature.
The fire plays a natural paper in the biodiversity when clarifying spaces in the forests for the renovation of the growth of grasses, flowers and trees. This new growth benefits to the nature because
believes new grass areas and watching. However, although the fires caused by the rays in some remote areas don't go out, yes that they are combatted if they come closer to populated areas or the natural parks.
Financing of the parks and reservations
The state budgetary reductions have affected to the parks and national reservations in almost all the countries due to the elevation of the sanitary and educational costs and to the importance that you/they have acquired the pensions for pensioners and people with scarce revenues in the group of the national tax systems; in spite of it, to the national parks from all over the world are demanded them to fulfill the conservation programs and the visit facilities.
In United States, the cuttings of the Congress to the Service of National Parks have prevented that it is hired to an enough number of keepers, affecting from a same way to the maintenance of highways and buildings, as well as to the educational exhibitions and the development of the scientific investigations. The lack of funds reduced fixed and eventual personnel's number, it limited the season of visits in some parks and it caused the campings closing of many others.
The administration of natural parks in some European countries and South Americans is limited, in a same way, for the budgetary cuttings. Many African countries can not even finance the necessary number of guards. The financing problems have affected to the protection of the tiger as much in the India as in Russia. The parks and reservations of China suffer because of the demographic pressure and of the lack of a scientific administration that finishes causing deforestation and broken into fragments hábitats (hábitats divided by the exploitation of the natural resources or for agricultural projects or of housings) around the protected areas.
NATIONAL PARKS OF THE WORLD
The following relationship highlights some of the most important national parks in the world. Other they have already been described along this article.
In the North American subcontinent there is more earth protected through parks and national reservations that in any other place of the world. In the national Park Yellowstone, the Great Canyon of the Yellowstone, with its two spectacular waterfalls, crosses a wide plain that constitutes the hábitat of bears grizzly, bisons, elks and a growing population of wolves. More than 10.000 geysers and springs mottle the sharp landscape, and they transform it into the biggest geothermal region in the world.
The national Park Great Smoky Mountains (1930) it protects 130 arboreal species and 26 species of salamanders in their 2.105 km2 of virgin forests belonging to the states of Kentucky and Tennessee. In Alaska, the Reservation and national Park Denali (1917)
understands 24.590 km2 and it protects a hábitat of tundra subártica for black bears and grizzly, caribúes, otters, wolves and bald eagles. The park harbors to the mount McKinley that is the highest pick in North America with its 6.194 m.
The national Park of the Buffalo of the Forests (1922) -that extends for Canadian territory along 44.802 km2, from Alberta's county until the Territory of the Northwest - it is the sanctuary where the biggest concentrations of forest buffalo and wolves take place. The national Park Grasslands (1981), in Saskatchewan, it preserves 907 km2 of prairies. The 10.000 km2 of arctic tundra of the national Park Ivvavik, (1922), in the Territories of the Northwest, it provides a refuge to a flock of caribúes puercoespín of 152.000 heads.
The national parks of Central America protect tropical pluvisilvas with a seemingly infinite diversity of plants and animals. Hundred of reptiles, amphibians and birds inhabit these dense forests. Costa Rica established its net of parks in 1970 to revert the gradual destruction of its wild areas. National parks, you reserve for indigenous towns, biological reservations that protect a vast diversity of plants and corridors and natural refuges occupy at the moment more than the fourth part of the surface of the country. The diversity inside these parks goes from the humid tropical forests and the savannas to the coral reefs. The parks of Costa Rica harbor more than 800 species of birds, 10.000 of insects and 9.000 of plants, among which there are 1.200 varieties of orchids. For these protected areas jaguars, ocelots, margay, pumas and cat-tiger wander.
The tourists can visit two volcanic craters in the Park national Volcán Poás (1971) that occupies a surface of 56 km2. One of them is characterized by the presence of geysers and fumaroles, while the other one remains sleeping, full with the deeply blue waters of a lake. In the biological Reservation of the Cloudy Forest of Monteverde (1950), lazy of three fingers, jaguars and tiny orchids are parts of the complex ecosystems that are developed under the vegetable cover of these 119 km2 of protected pluvisilva.
The river Amazons that it harbors thousands of ecosystems in their fluvial net and in their tropical forests, it dominates the South American landscape with their 6.400 kms of longitude. The annual precipitations in the head of the Amazons the 3 m can exceed, and the river drains in the ocean Atlantic a sixth part of the sweet water from all over the world.
Near the sources of the Amazons, in the Peruvian sector of the mountain range of you Walk them,
is the Reservation of the Biosphere of the Manú (1973) that extends along 18.907 km2. Manú is a combination of national park (15.328 km2 of surface),
reserves natural and inhabited cultural area. The inhabited cultural area protects the way of traditional life of the indigenous towns that you/they live and they cultivate in the area, while the reservation is open to the scientific investigation and to the tourism. The reservation of the biosphere (a group of interdependent ecosystems characteristic of the region) it includes grassy hillsides and without trees that the 3.965 m of height reaches, forests of arid lands formed by small dispersed groups of trees, swamps and orchids, and dense pluvisilvas that harbor dozens of plants, some contemporaries with some of the oldest glacial periods. Ugly, owls crestados, storks, monkeys and snakes are among the species that populate the mahogany forest and tropical cedar. The aquatic life of the river Manú and their tributaries that end in the Amazons, include turtles, pirañas, lines and caymen.
Medicines for diverse illnesses are synthesized starting from the existent flora in this reservation of the biosphere. More than 25% of the current pharmacopeia it comes from tropical plants, of those that however 10% has only been identified, and only 1% investigated for its medical use.
Contrary to the national parks of North America and South America, not all the British parks are of state property or they are administered in order to developing the tourism and the protection of the nature. Many are deprived and they understand old villages. It happens this way to the national Park of the District of the Lakes (1951; 2.280 km2), characterized by the presence of villages, farms, quarries and mines, dispersed for the park. In the farms red deer, foxes, swans and trouts are raised. The park also includes hundred of lakes that give him name and the highest pick in England, the Scafell (978 m). The national Park of the District of the Picks (1951; 1.404 km2) and the national Park of Exmoor (1954; 686 km2) they show stone ruins and cement and funeral barrows of the stone ages, iron and brass.
The national parks of Norway protect colonies of marine birds, tusks and reindeers. The national Park Forlandet (1973) it occupies the surface of the narrow homonymous island that includes several small glaciers that hang of high peaks. The island, of 640 km2, is in the most northern end in the current of the Gulf that believes a temperate climate, what transforms him into an important place of meeting of geese guillemot. Of this hábitat they also depend seals, wild ducks and geeses.
The national Park of Doñana (1969) it provides a refuge of 750 km2 in passing for the birds of the north of Europe that you/they will nest to África. The last lynxes of the south of Europe also have there their refuge.
Many national parks of Africa serve as valuable basins hidrográficas", avoiding the erosion while they maintain their natural drainages. Many flocks of mammals of the savanna believe channels in the earth with their hooves during their vagabondages in the parks. In the station of the rains these channels fill with water and they provide food to the existent vegetation. Also, these peculiar channels will take the water to the rivers, the water troughs and the lakes of the protected lands.
The national Park Hwange, the biggest in Zimbabue, it was founded in 1929, in great measure because their poor floors didn't allow their agricultural use. In spite of these conditions, now the wild life is developed in its 14.620 km2 of surface. By the middle of the decade of 1970 they wandered for the park around 20.000 elephants, but from then on a program of selective hunt has reduced that figure at about 12.000, to reduce the impact of these animals on the vegetation of the park. The national Park Hwange harbors, also, buffalos, zebras, giraffes, antelopes sable and kudu and impalas. They have been introduced with success white and black rhinoceroses and in the charcas and water troughs of the park reside hippopotami and crocodiles. Predators like lions and leopards also exist.
The national Park of Corbett became the first space protected with such a category of the India in 1936. Although it is a reservation fundamentally for tigers, the park, with 525 km2 of extension, also protects leopards, several species of monkeys, crocodiles, birds mine, parrots and birds carpenters. It is easier to see tigers in the national Park Ranthambore (1980; 392 km2) that in anyone of the other parks of the India. You/they can be seen drinking in the lakes of the park and even marauding in the proximities of the Strong Ranthambore that it was built when the land of the park was a private limit of hunt of the royalty.
The Indian government also works to save the Asian lion, a relative smaller than the African lion. The only natural hábitat that the Asian lion has left it is the national Park and Sanctuary of wild life Gir (created in 1975 and with an extension of 259 km2), where this feline lives in dense teak forests, to see, jamun and babul. In times, the area for which the Asian lion extended embraced from the Next East to the India, but the hunt reduced its population to less than 100 copies at the end of the XIX century. The protection programs helped to that the population in freedom recovers until the 300 copies in 1996.
Another Asian nation that works in the protection of the tiger is Nepal. In 1980, the government threw a long term protection project in Royal Chitwan's national Park (1973) to study the population, hábitat and conservation of the tigers.
The biggest national park in Malaysia is the Gunung Mulu (1974) that embraces 529 km2 of surface. It is the place where the biggest system of calcareous caves in the world exists, with more than 200 km of natural underground passageways. In the surface there are 15 types different from forests, with thousands of plants, swamps and mosses, including 170 species of wild orchids and 10 species of insectivorous plants.
China didn't begin to establish areas protected until the foundation, in 1956, of Zhaoging Dinghushan's natural Reservation, of 11 km2 of surface, in the county of Guangdong. Although China has 463 protected areas at the present time, the quality of the same dista of those of other Asian nations. The not well defined limits, the furtivismo, the pruning, the mining, the construction, the sobreexplotación of the grasses and the growing demographic pressure threaten many areas protected by their natural hábitats in the country.
The disseminated islands that extend along the equator in the western sector of the ocean Pacific, well-known collectively as Oceanía, they possess a great diversity of parks and reservations. The islands and the coast waters of Oceanía harbor more than 2.000 ecosystems that vary from coast reefs to dense tropical forests.
The marine Park of the Great Barrier of Reefs (1979) that covers a surface of 343.784 km2 of the sea of the Coral, it is located in front of the oriental coast of the island-continent of Australia. Big populations of fish and marine mammals live among the reefs of coral of brilliant colors. The national Park Iron Range (1977) it covers 346 km2 of Australian tropical forest. The biggest protected area in the continent the national Park Kakadu (1979)
understands some 20.000 km2 of different acquired hábitats to the aboriginal towns. Located in the coast, in front of the sea of Timor and to the east of the city of Darwin, the national Park Kakadu includes swamps, grasses, forests of eucalyptuses and ravines. It harbors a third of the vegetable species and animals of the continent, including crocodiles of salted water, striped small lizards, flying foxes and black wallaroos, relatives of the kangaroos. Aboriginal paintings of between 20.000 and 35.000 years of antiquity they appear in some of the rocky walls of the park.
In the near New Zealand, there are snowy picks of until 3.776 m of altitude in the national Park of the Monte Cook (1953; 700 km2 of extension). AT great distance of there, two active volcanos, the Kilauea and the Mauna Laud they vomit fire, smoke and rivers of lava in the national Park of the Volcanes Hawaianos, created in 1961 and with 927 km2 of extensio